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A psychology question?





I have to write a one page essay to answer this question:"In the first half of the 20th century, doctors began to notice a relationship between smoking tobacco and lung cancer. This line of research finally led to a warning by the Surgeon General on cigarette packages. This relationship was correlational. Explain what a correlational relationship is, and discuss the difference between a correlational stufy and experiment trying to find a cause and effect Include ethical considerations, informed consent and the role of deception in psychological studies. Also keep in mind the extraneous variables, experimenter bias and sample bias which might be present and conducting research."The first part I understand, but when it starts at "Include ethical..." I have no idea what it's even telling me. Can anyone just tell me what the heck it means so I don't fail? Thank you!



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One Response so far.

  1. mythological says:

    the warning on the packs suggested that it’s not a good idea to smoke cigs; that smoking may lead to cancer. A cause and effect study would have stated flat out that cigs cause cancer, period. ethics come into play when you say cigs cause cancer; a c/e study would show objectively that many people smoke, but don’t get cancer in their lifetime; many non smokers die of lung cancer…ethics made the govt consider taking the stance that smoking is highly associated with cancer and lung disease, for the simple fact that tobacco alone is loaded with known carcinogens; the ingredients added to cigarettes at manufacture exacerbate the liability. informed consent takes into consideration the habitual aspects of cig smoking..at the time of the surgeon generals proclamation, much was being done to tell people about the effects of tobacco, but little was known how to break the habit,..there was no chantix or patches back then, just cold turkey and gum. studies and experiments can be “rigged” to produce the results you want..its no hard task to pick subjects with little or no history of cancer and lung disease in their family blood line., in the same way its easy to find subjects who get sick from yawning..also, the majority of research and studies were done by the tobacco companies themselves, with their own labs and hand picked subjects, to provide the results they wanted. the first episodes of the cable hit “mad men” hits upon this subject…tobacco is big business and its revenues were pretty much guaranteed by popular appeal, advertising and addiction. the big money and all those other listed reasons were the reason why the industry went from outright denial of any ill effects from smoking, to a begrudging “correlational’ link between smoking and lung and heart disease…..once again, to this day, i believe a cause and effect study would fail to pin cancer , heart, and lung disease directly on smoking, due to the fact that millions smoke without ever contracting any of these ailments, yet there is no doubt that smoking kills. go figure.